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DANISH WORD OF THE DAY

Danish word of the day: Befrielse

Today's word of the day is as meaningful now as it was 77 years ago.

What is befrielse?

Befrielse is the noun formed from the verb at befri, which means to set free from captivity, suppression, restraint or similar.

It can also have the more abstract meaning of easing a burden, sense of discomfort or difficulty. For example, befriende latter is laughter that helps you forget about your worries.

The -else suffix is common in nouns that have been formed from verbs: ledelse (“leadership”, from at lede), forberedelse (“preparation”, from at forberede), and meddelelse (“message”, from at meddele, to inform) to name a few examples.

Although it can be used in different contexts as set out above, the most common use of befrielse is to mean “liberation”.

Why do I need to know befrielse?

May 5th is Danmarks befrielse (the liberation of Denmark) or befrielsesdagen (Liberation Day) in Denmark, the anniversary of the day German occupation of the country during World War II ended. One part of Denmark, the Baltic Sea island Bornholm, remained occupied after this date, with Soviet troops taking over from the German army and remaining until April 1946.

For the rest of the country, however, the day brought celebrations following the surrender of the German army to Allied troops advancing through the Netherlands and northern Germany.

The main custom associated with befrielsen (the liberation) in Denmark, when Danes place candles in their windows, actually takes place on May 4th, rather than the 5th. This is because the German surrender was announced on the evening of the 4th but did not take effect until the following day. The May 4th, 1945 radio message transmitted to Denmark by the BBC announcing the surrender, befrielsesbudskabet (“the liberation announcement”) is an important moment in Danish 20th century history.

READ ALSO: Why do Danes place candles in their windows on May 4th?

You might hear befrielse or related words in Danish news reports about the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the latter country’s struggle to defend its freedom. Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky referred directly to the Danish custom of commemorating Danmarks befrielse when he addressed parliament in March this year. Zelensky will give another speech to the Danish public by video link on the evening of May 4th, 77 years after befrielsesbudskabet was heard on the radio.

Examples

Min farmor sagde altid, at hun oplevede befrielsen som en stor lettelse, og mange gik ud på gaderne for at fejre den.

My grandmother always said the liberation felt like a huge relief, and many people went out on the streets to celebrate.

Efter jeg afleverede mit speciale gik jeg hjem og sov hele dagen. Det var en slags befrielse.

After I handed in my MA thesis I went home and slept all day. It felt like being set free.

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DANISH WORD OF THE DAY

Danish word of the day: Selvfed

The word of the day can help you not to get carried away by your own success.

Danish word of the day: Selvfed

What is selvfed?

Selv (“self”) and fed (“fat”) combine to create a composite word that has a figurative, rather than a literal, meaning (thankfully).

To be selvfed, though it literally means “self-fat” or “fattened on oneself” to translate slightly less directly, means to “perceive oneself as being smart, good, clever or similar”.

It is normally used in a derogatory manner, so you wouldn’t usually say it about yourself but might hear someone describing another person (perhaps behind their back, but perhaps not) as being selvfed.

A possible English translation might be “smug”, but this doesn’t always quite fit. “Self-satisfied” is a good option, while the more colloquial “full of oneself” (“he’s so full of himself, the way he always interrupts and thinks he knows everything”) is arguably a closer equivalent, with the added benefit of evoking similar imagery.

Why do I need to know selvfed?

Admonishing someone for being selvfed, or complaining to somebody else that a person is selvfed, feels like it fits well with a well-known aspect of Danish culture: humility. Even though making such an assertion might be a bit outspoken in itself.

The mindset of not excessively building up one’s knowledge or achievements, and instead remaining modest is a known Danish social more, and one we’ve alluded to in earlier words of the day.

As such, someone who’s a bit drunk on their own success risks being seen as selvfed, which is arguably a more negative thing in Denmark than it might be elsewhere.

READ ALSO: Five Danish social norms that might be new to newcomers

Examples

Han laver hele tiden latterlige opslag på Instagram. Jeg synes han er lidt for selvfed.

He’s always posting ridiculous things on Instagram. I think he’s a little bit self-satisfied.

Liam Gallagher er lige så selvfed nu, some han var i 90’erne.

Liam Gallagher is just as arrogant now as he was in the nineties.

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