What you need to know about the elections in Greenland

The autonomous Danish territory of Greenland votes Tuesday in legislative elections, after a campaign focused on a disputed mining project, as the Arctic island confronts first-hand the effects of global warming.

What you need to know about the elections in Greenland
Greenlandic party leaders at a debate on Sunday. Photo: Christian Klindt Sølbeck/Ritzau Scanpix

Greenland’s two main parties are divided on whether to authorise a giant rare earth and uranium mining project.

Supporters, including the ruling social democratic Siumut party, say the mine would yield an economic windfall. Opponents, such as the opposition left-green IA party, argue it could harm the vast island’s unspoiled environment.

Greenland’s geostrategic location and massive mineral reserves have raised international interest, as evidenced by former US president Donald Trump’s swiftly rebuffed offer to buy it in 2019.

The election campaign for parliament’s 31 seats has also centred on fishing — the main driver of Greenland’s economy.

And at a time when young Greenlanders are reconnecting with their Inuit roots and questioning their Danish colonial heritage, social issues and cultural identity have also been part of the debate.

Polling stations open for the island’s 35,000 voters at 11am GMT and close at 10pm GMT, with the final results expected early Wednesday.

IA is leading in the latest opinion polls with around 36 percent of voter support, while Siumut, which has been in power almost uninterrupted since Greenland gained autonomy in 1979, is trailing with 23 percent.

Experts however have warned that the outcome is nevertheless uncertain.

Opinion polls “often put IA way too high in the polls,” University of Greenland political scientist Leander Nielsen told AFP.

“A third of voters don’t make up their minds until the last minute.”

Nor was it likely that either of the two biggest parties would get a majority of the 16 seats: the most likely scenario, he said, was “that IA forms a coalition with one or two smaller parties”.

IA has called for a moratorium on uranium mining, which would effectively put a halt to the mining project.

The Kuannersuit deposit, in the south of the island, is considered one of the world’s richest in uranium and rare earth minerals — a group of 17 metals used as components in high-tech devices such as smart phones, flat screen displays, electric cars and weapons.

Local authorities have to give their stamp of approval before Australian group Greenland Mining can get an operating license.
Siumut party leader Erik Jensen has said the mine would be “hugely important for Greenland’s economy”, helping diversify revenues.

That is crucial if the island wants to gain full independence from Copenhagen someday.

Denmark, which is not opposed to Nuuk’s independence, gives the island annual subsidies of around 526 million euros, accounting for about a third of its budget.

Greenland plans to grow its economy by developing its fishing, mining and tourism sectors, as well as agriculture in the southern part of the island which is ice-free year-round.

“To harvest sustainably the living natural resources, like fish stocks, is going to be the most long-term (solution) for Greenland,” Minik Rosing, a geobiology professor at the University of Copenhagen, told AFP.

The island’s mineral potential “has only been investigated to some extent, but not in depth”, he added.

For Cambridge University Arctic specialist Marc Jacobsen, keeping the option of large-scale mining open is the reason why Greenland has not signed the Paris climate accord. The treaty lets states decide their own measures to meet the common goal of keeping global warming under two degrees Celsius.

“Signing the Paris Agreement would not allow them to develop any big mining project,” Jacobsen noted.

And yet the Arctic has been warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet since the 1990s, dramatically affecting the traditional way of life for Inuits, who make up more than 90 percent of Greenland’s population.

IA has vowed to sign the Paris Agreement if it comes to power.

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Greenland passes law banning uranium mining

Greenland's parliament voted Tuesday to ban uranium mining and exploration in the vast Danish territory, following through on a campaign promise from the ruling left-wing party which was elected earlier this year.

Greenland's parliament voted on November 9th to ban uranium mining. Prime Minister Mute Egede, pictured, said earlier this month he wanted to join the Paris climate agreement.
Greenland's parliament voted on November 9th to ban uranium mining. Prime Minister Mute Egede, pictured, said earlier this month he wanted to join the Paris climate agreement. File photo: Emil Helms/Ritzau Scanpix

The Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA) party won snap elections in April that were originally triggered by divisions over a controversial uranium and rare earth mining project.

The IA won 12 seats in the 31-seat Greenlandic national assembly, beating its rival Siumut, a social democratic party that had dominated politics in the island territory since it gained autonomy in 1979.

On Tuesday 12 MPs in the national assembly voted to ban uranium mining, with nine voting against. 

The IA had campaigned against exploiting the Kuannersuit deposit, which is located in fjords in the island’s south and is considered one of the world’s richest in uranium and rare earth minerals.

The project, led by the Chinese-owned Australian group Greenland Minerals, has not yet been officially abandoned.

But French group Orano announced in May it would not launch exploration despite holding permits to do so.

The massive natural riches of the vast island — measuring two million square kilometres, making it larger than Mexico — have been eyed by many, but few projects have been approved.

The island is currently home to two mines: one for anorthosite, whose deposits contain titanium, and one for rubies and pink sapphires.

While Greenland’s local government is not opposed to all mining activities, it has also banned all oil exploration over concerns for the climate and the environment.

Earlier this month Prime Minister Mute Egede said he wanted to join the Paris climate agreement, which Greenland is one of the few countries not to have ratified.

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