For citizens of countries outside the EU, application fees for permanent residency for EU countries can represent a significant outlay when starting out in a new country.
A survey carried out by internet group CupoNation shows that Denmark is the second-most expensive country for work or study-based permanent residence applications, with fees of 5,760 kroner (772 euros) second only to Lithuania.
In comparison to its Scandinavian neighbours, Denmark is noticeably more expensive. Permanent residence fees are 1,000 Swedish kronor (102 euros) and 2,100 Norwegian kroner (222 euros) in Sweden and Norway respectively.
Criteria for permanent residency also vary significantly between each country, with various minimum periods of living and working required before non-nationals become eligible for permanent residency.
Earlier this year, the Danish parliament passed an unpopular proposal further tightening requirements for residency, with the eight-year period now required making it one of Europe's strictest countries on the issue.
Danish residency requirements also include provisions on age, employment, language, and criminal records.
The cost of applying for permanent residency in EU countries is a relevant issue in light of the expected start of negotiations between the United Kingdom and the EU on the former's withdrawal to leave the union, CupoNation's digital marketing manager Jeppe Jepsen told The Local.
With the UK's future relationship with the EU uncertain, and other countries having raised the idea of leaving the EU, the economic outlook for those who may suddenly find themselves without EU citizenship is an issue that deserves accessible data, Jepsen wrote in an email.
The extent to which the UK will retain free movement and trade with EU countries has arguably become less certain after last week's general election in the country, in which Prime Minister Theresa May, who has advocated a “Hard Brexit”, lost her parliamentary majority, leaving her future as PM in doubt.
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A Hard Brexit would prioritise giving Britain full control over its borders, making new trade deals and applying laws within its own territory, at the possible expense of access to the EU single market.
The negotiations, which were scheduled to begin next week, may yet be delayed by the election result in the UK.
Should Britain exclude itself from the EU completely, fees for permanent residence applications could become an unwanted side effect for UK citizens basing themselves abroad.
Correction: A previous version of this article erroneously stated in one paragraph that the 5,760 DKK fee was related to citizenship applications. It applies only to work or study-based residency applications.