Denmark and Europe: the importance of the long view

Medieval scholar Alastair Matthews wonders if border controls are a sign that we are forgetting our cultural past.

Denmark and Europe: the importance of the long view
The author's "dismal" view at Copenhagen Airport. Photo: Alastair Matthews
The picture at the railway station in Copenhagen Airport is by now so familiar that it is easy to forget that things were ever any different.
That there was not a stark grey fence keeping the lines for Sweden and Denmark apart. That it was possible to simply walk onto a train to Malmö without being herded around barriers so that each and every passenger can have their ID checked. That it was possible to get to, well, just about anywhere west of Copenhagen by rail without the lottery of whether they are or are not going to run the shuttle you now need to make that connection at the Central Station. 
This is the reality for me, and probably many other expats, of how the process of returning ‘home’ begins these days, and it all seems that bit more dismal just after 10pm at night, in the dark, especially when power trouble has left the entire Swedish platform thronged apocalyptically with travellers from end to end in the gloom. 
It’s a far cry from the concept of a Europe where freedom of movement across borders was something to take as a given. The way that things have changed is, perhaps, reflected also in the content of the official Danish language course that I’m doing online. It places rather a lot of emphasis on being glad to work and tolerant of non-traditional families – so much emphasis, in fact, that a cynic might think it presupposes that people coming to this country will be neither of those things.
The debates about immigration, the refugee crisis, and national identities that lie behind these experiences have, like the experiences themselves, become almost a part of life in the recent past. 
What we often seem to lose sight of as a result, though, is that they did not appear out of nowhere, but are really just one part of much longer historical processes that reach back far beyond the world of 21st century Denmark. 
This has a particular resonance for me because I came to Odense to work on a research project about cultural contact and exchange around the Baltic in the Middle Ages. It’s the kind of topic that can sound very distant, even in academic circles, yet being here has really made me connect with it, and realize that the questions I’m looking at are still being lived out in the here and now. 
It would be wrong to idealize those earlier times with a sweeping claim that they were somehow more just, more enlightened when it came to such things. The very real political tensions that existed between the Danes and their southern neighbours, for instance, are palpable in historical writing from northern Germany. 
What I find interesting instead is the fact that there are glimpses of a world that was shaped by movement on many levels without the same borders that exist now. That could be the case with people, as when different languages and their speakers, ‘incomers’ and ‘natives’, co-existed in medieval Tallinn. 
It was also the case with stories such as the tale of a mysterious knight travelling in a boat drawn by a swan. One of the many routes by which this narrative crossed medieval Europe began with a lost French text in which it was included. That text was then translated in Norway, before being adapted again to produce a Danish chronicle. 
The Swan Knight stories were, moreover, not unrelated to the stories of the Swan Children that were similarly widespread long before finding a way into Hans Christian Andersen’s 1838 fairytale 'The Wild Swans'… 
Somehow this kind of openness and fluidity, not yet quite so encumbered by rival national traditions as might later be the case, is a reassuring concept to have in mind when moving through the present-day world. It is something we would do well not to culturally forget.
Alastair Matthews is a modern-day itinerant scholar, currently Marie Curie Research Fellow at the Centre for Medieval Literature at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense. He tweets as @timesresonant and blogs at

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Denmark suspends asylum centre talks with Rwanda

Denmark now aims to work with other EU countries to transfer asylum seekers to centres outside Europe and has suspended talks with Rwanda as it no longer plans to go it alone, its migration minister said on Wednesday.

Denmark suspends asylum centre talks with Rwanda

The Scandinavian country’s plans, first announced by the previous Social Democratic government, called for people seeking asylum in Denmark to be transferred to reception centres outside the European Union while their requests were processed.

A law adopted in June 2021 did not specify which country would host the centre, but said asylum seekers should stay there even after they were granted refugee status.

Discussions were launched with Rwanda and other countries, but they have now been suspended since the installation of a new Danish left-right government in December headed by the Social Democrats.

“We are not holding any negotiations at the moment about the establishment of a Danish reception centre in Rwanda”, Migration and Integration Minister Kaare Dybvad told daily Altinget.

“This is a new government. We still have the same ambition, but we have a different process”, he added. “The new government’s programme calls for the establishment of a reception centre outside Europe “in cooperation with the EU or a number of other countries”.

The change is an about-face for the Social Democrats, which had until now rejected any European collaboration, judging it slow and thorny.

“While the wider approach also makes sense to us, [Denmark’s change of heart] is precisely because there has been movement on the issue among many European countries”, Dybvad said. “There are many now pushing for a stricter asylum policy in Europe”, he said.


Inger Støjberg, leader of the Denmark Democrats said on Facebook that she was “honestly disgusted” by the government’s decision to delay plans for a reception centre in Rwanda, pointing out that Kaare Dybvad had said during the election campaign that a deal would be done with Rwanda within a year. 

“Call us old-fashioned, but we say the same thing both before and after an election. We stand firm on a strict immigration policy. The Social Democrats, Liberals and Moderates clearly do not,” she said. 

Lars Boje Mathiesen from the New Right Party accused the government of perpetrating a “deadly fraud” on the Danish people. 

“It is said in Christiansborg that it is paused. But we all know what that means,” he wrote on Facebook, accusing Danish prime minister Mette Frederiksen of “empty words” in the run-up to the election. 

In the face of this reaction, Dybvad told the Ritzau newswire that although talks with Rwanda were not happening at present, the government had not given up on a deal with the African nation. He also said that he was confident that asylum reception centres outside of the EU would be a reality within five years.

EU interior ministers are meeting in Stockholm this week to discuss asylum reform. Those talks are expected to focus on how to speed up the process of returning undocumented migrants to their country of origin in cases where their asylum bid fails.

Denmark’s immigration policy has been influenced by the far-right for more than 20 years. Even Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen, the head of the Social Democrats, has pursued a “zero refugee” policy since coming to power in 2019.

Copenhagen has over the years implemented a slew of initiatives to discourage migrants and made Danish citizenship harder to obtain. In 2020, it became the only country in Europe to withdraw residency permits from Syrians from Damascus, judging that the situation there was now safe enough for them to return.